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FUELS AVAILABLE


  • Jp54
  • Diesel
  • Gasoline
  • LNG
  • Mazut
  • Rebco
  • LPG
  • Bitumen

 

JET FUEL

Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in air craft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is clear to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1 which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.

Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. The range of their sizes (molecular weights or carbon numbers) is restricted by the requirements for the product, for example, the freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 carbon numbers; wide-cut or naphtha type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15 carbon numbers.

Jet B is a fuel in the naphtha-Kerosene region that is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. However, Jet B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle. For this reason it is rarely used, except in very cold climates.

Jet Fuel for piston-engine powered aircraft (usually a high-octane gasoline known as avgas has a low flash point to improve its ignition characteristics. Turbine engines can operate with a wide range of fuels, and jet-aircraft engines typically use fuels with higher flash points, which are less flammable and therefore safer to transport and handle. The first jet fuels were based on kerosene or a gasoline-kerosene mix, and most jet fuels are still kerosene-based.

DIESEL

Diesel Fuel is a specific distille fraction of fuel oil that is used in diesel engine invented by German engineer Rufolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. Overwhelmingly the term refers to fuel that is processed from pertoleum,but increasingly, alternatives such as biodiesel that are not derived from petroleum are being developed.

Diesel is identical to heating oil, used in central heating. In both Europe and the United States. Diesel is used in diesel engines, a type of internal combustion engine. Rudolf Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use coal dust as a fuel,but oil proved more effective. Diesel engines are used in cars, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

One can obtain diesel from petroleum, which is sometimes called petrodiesel when there is a need to distinguish it from diesel obtained from other sources. Also, diesel fuel often contains higher quantities of sulfur. In Europe, emission standards and/or preferrential taxation have forced oil refineries to dramatically reduce the level of sulfur in diesel fuels.

REBCO (RUSSIAN EXPORT BLEND CRUDE OIL)

The quality of the Russian Export Blend Crude Oil is standard and more economical and better than the Middle East Oil.

A light crude oil, Russian Blend Crude Oil reserves are probably in the range of 90-105 billion barrels. Reserves will be capable of sustaining an additional 35% over current levels for an extended period. Crude Oil reserves allow significant increase from current production and will assume an increasing imporantance.

REBCO is found in an oil field in area thick sedimentary basins with all elements for hydrocarbon accumulation in Arctic and Pacific basins. Russia, a major world oil producer, has seven major basins,each equal to or larger than the gulf of Mexico and North Sea.

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG)

LNG stands for liquefied natural gas; natural gas; natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. It produces less emissions and pollutants than either coal or oil. As a liquid, LNG is not explosive, LNG vapor will only explode if in an enclosed space.

The conversion of natural gas into liquid is called liquefaction and is achieved through refrigeration. Liquefaction reduces the volume by approximately 600 times, making it more economical to transport between continents in specially designed ships. LNG is converted back to gas by passing the liquid through vaporizers that warm it. Both processes are performed using advanced technologies with a proven safety record.

Natural gas is composed primarily of methane (typically, at least 90%), but may also contain ethane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons. Small quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water may also be found in "pipeline" natural gas. The process can also be designed to purify the LNG to almost 100% methane.


 

MAZUT

Mazut is a low-grade oil primarily used in industrial boilers and other direct source heating applications. It is also used as a principal fuel in marine applications in large diesel engines, given it's high boiling point and tar-like consistency, typically requires heating before it can moved through pipes or dispensed into a boiler or other heating vessel to be burned.

Mazut is the least expensive of the refined oil fuels and can only be used by facilities that have preheating capabilities,, It is typically high in sulfur and other impurities that are released into the air when the fuel is burned.

Use releases sulphur dioxide, a key component of acid rain, into the atmosphere. The sulfur contained in heavy fuel oil also forms sulfate particles that contribute to the formation of fine particulate matter.

 


 

BITUMEN

Bitumen is a category of organically-based liquids that are highly viscous,black, and sticky. Refined bitumen is the residual(bottom) fraction obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil. It is the heaviest fraction and the one with the highest boiling point.


 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS

Also called LPG, GPL, LP GAS or autogas, LPG is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer.

Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are primarily butane, and the more common, mixes including both propane(60%) and butane(40%), depending on the season-in winter more propane, in summer more butane.